GeographicLib  1.36
Static Public Member Functions | Friends | List of all members
GeographicLib::MGRS Class Reference

Convert between UTM/UPS and MGRS. More...

#include <GeographicLib/MGRS.hpp>

Static Public Member Functions

static void Forward (int zone, bool northp, real x, real y, int prec, std::string &mgrs)
 
static void Forward (int zone, bool northp, real x, real y, real lat, int prec, std::string &mgrs)
 
static void Reverse (const std::string &mgrs, int &zone, bool &northp, real &x, real &y, int &prec, bool centerp=true)
 
Inspector functions
static Math::real MajorRadius ()
 
static Math::real Flattening ()
 

Friends

class UTMUPS
 

Detailed Description

Convert between UTM/UPS and MGRS.

MGRS is defined in Chapter 3 of

This document has been updated by the two NGA documents

This implementation has the following properties:

The NGA software package geotrans also provides conversions to and from MGRS. Version 3.0 (and earlier) suffers from some drawbacks:

Example of use:

// Example of using the GeographicLib::MGRS class
#include <iostream>
#include <exception>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
using namespace GeographicLib;
int main() {
try {
// See also example-GeoCoords.cpp
{
// Sample forward calculation
double lat = 33.3, lon = 44.4; // Baghdad
int zone;
bool northp;
double x, y;
UTMUPS::Forward(lat, lon, zone, northp, x, y);
string mgrs;
MGRS::Forward(zone, northp, x, y, lat, 5, mgrs);
cout << mgrs << "\n";
}
{
// Sample reverse calculation
string mgrs = "38SMB4488";
int zone, prec;
bool northp;
double x, y;
MGRS::Reverse(mgrs, zone, northp, x, y, prec);
double lat, lon;
UTMUPS::Reverse(zone, northp, x, y, lat, lon);
cout << prec << " " << lat << " " << lon << "\n";
}
}
catch (const exception& e) {
cerr << "Caught exception: " << e.what() << "\n";
return 1;
}
return 0;
}

Definition at line 68 of file MGRS.hpp.

Member Function Documentation

void GeographicLib::MGRS::Forward ( int  zone,
bool  northp,
real  x,
real  y,
int  prec,
std::string &  mgrs 
)
static

Convert UTM or UPS coordinate to an MGRS coordinate.

Parameters
[in]zoneUTM zone (zero means UPS).
[in]northphemisphere (true means north, false means south).
[in]xeasting of point (meters).
[in]ynorthing of point (meters).
[in]precprecision relative to 100 km.
[out]mgrsMGRS string.
Exceptions
GeographicErrif zone, x, or y is outside its allowed range.
GeographicErrif the memory for the MGRS string can't be allocated.

prec specifies the precision of the MGRS string as follows:

  • prec = −1 (min), only the grid zone is returned
  • prec = 0 (min), 100 km
  • prec = 1, 10 km
  • prec = 2, 1 km
  • prec = 3, 100 m
  • prec = 4, 10 m
  • prec = 5, 1 m
  • prec = 6, 0.1 m
  • prec = 11 (max), 1 μm

UTM eastings are allowed to be in the range [100 km, 900 km], northings are allowed to be in in [0 km, 9500 km] for the northern hemisphere and in [1000 km, 10000 km] for the southern hemisphere. (However UTM northings can be continued across the equator. So the actual limits on the northings are [−9000 km, 9500 km] for the "northern" hemisphere and [1000 km, 19500 km] for the "southern" hemisphere.)

UPS eastings/northings are allowed to be in the range [1300 km, 2700 km] in the northern hemisphere and in [800 km, 3200 km] in the southern hemisphere.

The ranges are 100 km more restrictive that for the conversion between geographic coordinates and UTM and UPS given by UTMUPS. These restrictions are dictated by the allowed letters in MGRS coordinates. The choice of 9500 km for the maximum northing for northern hemisphere and of 1000 km as the minimum northing for southern hemisphere provide at least 0.5 degree extension into standard UPS zones. The upper ends of the ranges for the UPS coordinates is dictated by requiring symmetry about the meridians 0E and 90E.

All allowed UTM and UPS coordinates may now be converted to legal MGRS coordinates with the proviso that eastings and northings on the upper boundaries are silently reduced by about 4 nm (4 nanometers) to place them within the allowed range. (This includes reducing a southern hemisphere northing of 10000 km by 4 nm so that it is placed in latitude band M.) The UTM or UPS coordinates are truncated to requested precision to determine the MGRS coordinate. Thus in UTM zone 38n, the square area with easting in [444 km, 445 km) and northing in [3688 km, 3689 km) maps to MGRS coordinate 38SMB4488 (at prec = 2, 1 km), Khulani Sq., Baghdad.

The UTM/UPS selection and the UTM zone is preserved in the conversion to MGRS coordinate. Thus for zone > 0, the MGRS coordinate begins with the zone number followed by one of [C–M] for the southern hemisphere and [N–X] for the northern hemisphere. For zone = 0, the MGRS coordinates begins with one of [AB] for the southern hemisphere and [XY] for the northern hemisphere.

The conversion to the MGRS is exact for prec in [0, 5] except that a neighboring latitude band letter may be given if the point is within 5nm of a band boundary. For prec in [6, 11], the conversion is accurate to roundoff.

If prec = -1, then the "grid zone designation", e.g., 18T, is returned. This consists of the UTM zone number (absent for UPS) and the first letter of the MGRS string which labels the latitude band for UTM and the hemisphere for UPS.

If x or y is NaN or if zone is UTMUPS::INVALID, the returned MGRS string is "INVALID".

Return the result via a reference argument to avoid the overhead of allocating a potentially large number of small strings. If an error is thrown, then mgrs is unchanged.

Definition at line 130 of file MGRS.cpp.

References GeographicLib::UTMUPS::Reverse().

Referenced by GeographicLib::GeoCoords::AltMGRSRepresentation(), and GeographicLib::GeoCoords::MGRSRepresentation().

void GeographicLib::MGRS::Forward ( int  zone,
bool  northp,
real  x,
real  y,
real  lat,
int  prec,
std::string &  mgrs 
)
static

Convert UTM or UPS coordinate to an MGRS coordinate when the latitude is known.

Parameters
[in]zoneUTM zone (zero means UPS).
[in]northphemisphere (true means north, false means south).
[in]xeasting of point (meters).
[in]ynorthing of point (meters).
[in]latlatitude (degrees).
[in]precprecision relative to 100 km.
[out]mgrsMGRS string.
Exceptions
GeographicErrif zone, x, or y is outside its allowed range.
GeographicErrif lat is inconsistent with the given UTM coordinates.
std::bad_allocif the memory for mgrs can't be allocated.

The latitude is ignored for zone = 0 (UPS); otherwise the latitude is used to determine the latitude band and this is checked for consistency using the same tests as Reverse.

Definition at line 46 of file MGRS.cpp.

References GeographicLib::UTMUPS::INVALID, GeographicLib::Math::isnan(), GeographicLib::UTMUPS::MAXZONE, GeographicLib::UTMUPS::MINZONE, and GeographicLib::Utility::str().

void GeographicLib::MGRS::Reverse ( const std::string &  mgrs,
int &  zone,
bool &  northp,
real &  x,
real &  y,
int &  prec,
bool  centerp = true 
)
static

Convert a MGRS coordinate to UTM or UPS coordinates.

Parameters
[in]mgrsMGRS string.
[out]zoneUTM zone (zero means UPS).
[out]northphemisphere (true means north, false means south).
[out]xeasting of point (meters).
[out]ynorthing of point (meters).
[out]precprecision relative to 100 km.
[in]centerpif true (default), return center of the MGRS square, else return SW (lower left) corner.
Exceptions
GeographicErrif mgrs is illegal.

All conversions from MGRS to UTM/UPS are permitted provided the MGRS coordinate is a possible result of a conversion in the other direction. (The leading 0 may be dropped from an input MGRS coordinate for UTM zones 1–9.) In addition, MGRS coordinates with a neighboring latitude band letter are permitted provided that some portion of the 100 km block is within the given latitude band. Thus

  • 38VLS and 38WLS are allowed (latitude 64N intersects the square 38[VW]LS); but 38VMS is not permitted (all of 38VMS is north of 64N)
  • 38MPE and 38NPF are permitted (they straddle the equator); but 38NPE and 38MPF are not permitted (the equator does not intersect either block).
  • Similarly ZAB and YZB are permitted (they straddle the prime meridian); but YAB and ZZB are not (the prime meridian does not intersect either block).

The UTM/UPS selection and the UTM zone is preserved in the conversion from MGRS coordinate. The conversion is exact for prec in [0, 5]. With centerp = true the conversion from MGRS to geographic and back is stable. This is not assured if centerp = false.

If a "grid zone designation" (for example, 18T or A) is given, then some suitable (but essentially arbitrary) point within that grid zone is returned. The main utility of the conversion is to allow zone and northp to be determined. In this case, the centerp parameter is ignored.

If the first 3 characters of mgrs are "INV", then x and y are set to NaN and zone is set to UTMUPS::INVALID.

If an exception is thrown, then the arguments are unchanged.

Definition at line 165 of file MGRS.cpp.

References GeographicLib::UTMUPS::INVALID, GeographicLib::Utility::lookup(), GeographicLib::UTMUPS::MAXUTMZONE, GeographicLib::UTMUPS::MINUTMZONE, GeographicLib::Utility::str(), and GeographicLib::UTMUPS::UPS.

Referenced by GeographicLib::GeoCoords::Reset().

static Math::real GeographicLib::MGRS::MajorRadius ( )
inlinestatic
Returns
a the equatorial radius of the WGS84 ellipsoid (meters).

(The WGS84 value is returned because the UTM and UPS projections are based on this ellipsoid.)

Definition at line 320 of file MGRS.hpp.

References GeographicLib::UTMUPS::MajorRadius().

static Math::real GeographicLib::MGRS::Flattening ( )
inlinestatic
Returns
f the flattening of the WGS84 ellipsoid.

(The WGS84 value is returned because the UTM and UPS projections are based on this ellipsoid.)

Definition at line 328 of file MGRS.hpp.

References GeographicLib::UTMUPS::Flattening().

Friends And Related Function Documentation

friend class UTMUPS
friend

Definition at line 102 of file MGRS.hpp.


The documentation for this class was generated from the following files: